They were among 68 abducted last month near the town of Damboa in north-eastern Borno state.
Reports say the women escaped when the militants went to attack a military base near Damboa on Friday.
The Nigerian military said it killed more than 50 rebels in a clash that night.
Boko Haram is still holding more than 200 schoolgirls abducted in April.
Local vigilante Abbas Gava told journalists he had “received an alert from my colleagues… that about 63 of the abducted women and girls had made it back home”.
“They took the bold step when their abductors moved out to carry out an operation,” he said.
A high-level security source in the state capital Maiduguri confirmed the escape, AFP news agency reported.